Radical feminism is a "current" within feminism that focuses on the theory of patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex of relationships based on an assumption of "male supremacy" used to oppress women. Radical feminism aims to challenge and to overthrow patriarchy by opposing standard gender roles and the male oppression of women, and calls for a radical reordering of society. Early radical feminism, arising within second-wave feminism in the 1960s, typically viewed patriarchy as a "transhistorical phenomenon" prior to or deeper than other sources of oppression, "not only the oldest and most universal form of domination but the primary form" and the model for all others.Later politics derived from radical feminism ranged from cultural feminism to more syncretic politics that placed issues of class, economics, etc. on a par with patriarchy as sources of oppression.Radical feminists locate the root cause of women's oppression in patriarchal gender relations, as opposed to legal systems (as in liberal feminism) or class conflict (as in socialist feminism and Marxist feminism).
Source: "Radical Feminism." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 9 Dec. 2010. Web. 20 Dec. 2010.
Summary: Kathleen Lennon’s website uses scholarly
information to give the history and development for different forms of
feminism. She uses the female body as a focal point for radical feminism
beliefs as well as other feministic ideals. For radical feminism it is the
maternal body that symbolizes the positive values that contrast male values.
Kathleen Lennon also expresses how the involvement of women in reproductive
actions promotes a positive self-image.
The University of
department runs the website that Kathleen Lennon posted her findings on January 28, 2010. She is a
professor of philosophy at Hull
University and she uses
numerous resources to support her idea of how the female body is related to
feminism. The encyclopedia website allows the reader of the website to view the
credentials of Kathleen Lennon and their staff at Hull University.
Summary: Wikipedia for cultural feminism offers
readers easy accessibility of the website and allows readers to comprehend the
meaning of cultural feminism with little trouble. The site states that cultural
feminism is was developed from the ideas of radical feminism, and that it also
contains essentialist views. Wikipedia also displays the criticisms of cultural
feminism with a counterargument.
Evaluation: Wikipedia offers a link to research the
individuals who have contributed to the website to determine if the information
is reliable or not. The scholarly website is consistently updated with
information that is reviewed to ensure that the information is absolutely
correct. The website provides all sources that were used on the site, all
pictures are cited, and there are suggested readings at the bottom of the page
for further research that may want to be conducted for cultural feminism.
Summary: The history, the movements, and beliefs of
radical feminism is displayed on the Wikipedia websit. There is also
information about what is involved in being a radical feminist. Criticisms to
radical feminism are also presented to counteract with the rest of the
information of the website which was last updated on March 7, 2011.
Evaluation: Wikipedia is consistently updated and the
information is reviewed to ensure that the information is absolute. If they are
unsure of the information presented, there is a note posted with the
information to let the reader know. Wikipedia allows for the reader to view the
profiles of the individuals who contribute to the website to review if the
source is reliable. The individuals may not be experts in the field so some of
the information may not be entirely reliable.
Summary: Lloyd Marcus uses the American Thinker
website to portray how radical feminists want to assault manhood and weaken it.
He uses examples from his own life of how there is a need for men to still
remain “macho” and not become a weakened by radical feminist. Lloyd Marcus also
uses an article from Time Magazine that was written by a woman to help
support his point that he is trying to make.
Evaluation: This site is more opinion based and the
author uses first-hand experience and a cited magazine article to prove his
point that he is trying to make. There is a picture from the issue of Time
Magazine that Lloyd Marcus quoted and there is also a drawing that he drew
to help support his argument against radical feminism. The article was posted
on December 15, 2009,
and the website offers a link that goes to Lloyd Marcus’s website. His article
is posted on American Thinker which is a site for people to publish
daily articles, the staff biographies give descriptions of individuals who are
Summary: Mary Jo Deegan uses the site to discuss the
study of cultural feminism. The site states that research from Jacob Bachoffen
uses matriarchal and patriarchal societies to show how women’s powers have
changed. Research from Friedrich Engels is also used to show that women’s
powers have also been affected because of economic and technological changes.
The site discusses that women used to have more power and that they are
pacifist and they believe in cooperation and that they do not approve of
Evaluation: Mary Jo Deegan is a professor at the
University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Her credentials are not provided on the
website, but she has properly sited all of her resources and she gives evidence
from popular researchers to back up her position on cultural feminism. It is
difficult to identify who the site is run by or when the site was last updated,
but the information is reliable and the information is correctly cited.
Summary: Maureen Zieber uses her research that she
has completed to express women’s struggles throughout history. Her research
provides proof for what radical feminists’ beliefs. She conveyed that liberal
feminists wanted to demolish the differences between men and women and have
there be equality between the two genders. She also states that there are two
different types of radical feminism. Radical-libertarians are those that believe
women are able to freely choose their sexual preferences. Radical-culturals are
those that believe that women are naturally mothers and that the rights for
reproduction of females are important.
Maureen Zieber posted her research on a reliable, but not too well known site
on November 20, 2008.
She contains a Bachelor’s Degree in World History and Women’s Studies with a
minor in Anthropology. She graduated from the University of Delaware
and she is pursuing her Master’s in Secondary Social Studies Education from Wilmington University. She is very interested in
women’s studies and her posted information is for purely scholarly purposes and
her resources and pictures used are cited in the article.
Summary: Danny Frederick writes on this site to give
a description on what radical feminists are unsupportive of. These objections
include pin-ups, pornography, gratuitous sex, prostitution, and forms of
expression. This site is sponsored by liberal feminists supporters who want to
show the difference between what the liberal feminist believe and what the
radical feminists believe.
Evaluation: The Liberation Alliance in London, England
created and sponsors this website. Danny Frederick studied philosophy in London and also taught
philosophy at Kings
College. All of the
references used in their site are appropriately cited and they are reliable,
scholarly sources. Information from Cambridge
University is used in the
website as well which adds to the source’s credibility. The site has not been
updated since 1992, but the site is still reliable because of reliable
resources and endnotes.
Summary: The sociology site gives a great deal of
information about radical feminism. The site says that the oppression of women
acts as a model for the oppression of other groups as well, and there are
radical feminists who argue that oppression comes from biology. The site also
presents the argument that radical feminists may oppress other women along with
men, and the difference between radical feminists and liberal feminists is also
made of the site. It states that liberal feminists are more reasoned with their
way of thinking.
Evaluation: The site has no author and no date for
when the website was last revised. The sociology website does give sources that
were used to support the information given on the website. The resources that
are given also have a description of the types of information that was
available within that resource. The site is non-opinion based, but is all scholarly.
The site is dependable due to the viable resources used to make the website.
Summary: This site provides information on how
radical feminism differs from the founders of feminism. Radical feminist
support women’s rights and their choice for abortion, contraception, and they
are against family. The site also discusses how some radical feminist are
starting to change their beliefs again in today’s world. Radical feminists are
moving towards Marxism and Socialism and away from equal rights for women in
Evaluation: The site is sponsored by These Last
Days Ministries, Inc and was last updated on February 3, 2010. There is no author
for this website, but all of the sources that are quoted throughout the site
are accurately cited and are used to encourage the author’s viewpoint. This
site is supported by an unknown organization that could potentially be
Summary: The website, last updated on January 7, 2003, provides
information for both for the benefits cultural feminism and also the problems
of cultural feminism. The benefits include a sense of community and that a
woman’s world is full of superior values and beliefs. The site also states that
cultural feminism challenges the theory of classical liberalism. The reasons
for opposition against cultural feminism include: setting too high of
expectations for women, no long-term effects, fails to recognize the strengths
that rose from oppression, expectations create inferior women, and it does not
have the appropriate response to sexism.
Evaluation: The site does not list an author on that
page and its resources are not fully cited. The site gives two individuals that
were quoted for the use of this website. One of the individuals who is quoted,
Alic Echols, has the book that they are quoted from provided. Linda Alcoff’s
opinion is quoted for comparison to Echols. The website has been updated in six
years and it is the website of Marie P. McMahon who is a professor at the
Universidad de La Laguna in Spain.
The website does contain scholarly research, but there is also opinion throughout
the article as well.